It is easy to say "I have
no prejudices" or "I'm not racist, so it
has nothing to do with me", or "I didn't
invite those refugees". It is hard to say "I
may not be to blame for what happened in the past but I
want to take responsibility for making sure it doesn't continue
into the future".
Welcome to this internet edition of the
Education Pack "all different - all equal"
When this Education Pack was produced
back in 1994-95, access to the internet was restricted basically
to academics, big business and governments - none of us
had e-mail and we contacted each other using the post, fax
and telephone. Nowadays, access to the internet is still
not available to everybody and we need to be doing more
to combat this new form of exclusion. Still, things are
improving and the opportunities to use the internet to share
ideas and make publications more accessible are - thinking
back to 1995 - incredible. Contributing to an evolving community
of practice on human rights education throughout the world
certainly assists in creating links and solidarity.
Soon after its publication in 1995, the
Education Pack "all different - all equal" became
a reference to those involved in intercultural education
and training across Europe and beyond. Translated into many
languages, it remains today one of the most successful and
used publications of the Council of Europe. With the successful
launch of Compass
on-line, it made sense to update the publications which
formed the core of the educational effort of the "all
different – all equal" campaign and to make them
more widely available within the context of the Human Rights
Education initiative. And it made sense to use the possibility
to make relevant links between Compass,
93 and this one – as you click through them you
will find much which is complementary. Especially exciting
is the chance to make links between more reflective pieces
and activities, so that each enhances the other. The tenth
anniversary of the "all different - all equal"
campaign is also a good opportunity to give these materials
a new life.
So what has changed here? The bulk of
the text remains unchanged. We have updated references and
examples; and deleted ones which are now irrelevant. We
have been very selective in suggesting links to other relevant
web sites. And a technical note here: as site designers
often change the internal structure of their sites, we usually
only give the basic domain name for a site; when more complicated
addresses are referenced then we also state the date of
Most changes are visible and usable only
in the on-line version of the Education Pack. There it has
been possible to make relevant links between Compass, DOmino,
Alien 93 and this manual that all serve the same purpose
of contributing to promote the philosophy of the campaign:
equality in dignity and rights and respect of diversity.
As you scroll through them you will find much which is complementary.
Especially exciting is the chance to make links between
more reflective pieces and activities, so that each enhances
the other. Try it out at www.coe.int/compass!
We hope you will find this edition easy
and exciting to use and implement!
The "all different - all equal"
European societies continue to
suffer from a growth of racist hostility and intolerance
towards minorities. Many people across the continent, through
public bodies, non-governmental associations and local
initiatives, are working to try and tackle these problems.
The European Youth Campaign "all different - all
equal" against Racism, Xenophobia, Anti-semitism
and Intolerance sought to bring these people together
and give extra momentum to the struggle against all forms
of intolerance. Although the Campaign itself officially
closed in 1996, the necessity for continuing the work remains
The growing problem of racism and intolerance
was top of the agenda when the political leaders of the
then 32 member states of the Council of Europe met for the
Vienna Summit in 1993. They decided upon a joint Plan of
Action which, in addition to the Campaign, envisages co-operation
between member States particularly in the areas of legislation
and education designed to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-semitism
and intolerance (see Appendix 1). The Campaign was supported
fully by the two pan-European platforms for non-governmental
youth organisations CENYC and ECB - both of which merged
into the European Youth Forum in 1996. It is important to
see that these issues are worldwide, which has been highlighted
dramatically in the effects of the plane crashes of 11 September
2001 and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The Campaign sought to mobilise all sectors
of society for the positive aims of tolerance, equality,
dignity, human rights and democracy, and to provide a stimulus
for years to come. Aims such as these cannot be "reached";
rather they are continuous processes requiring the involvement
of us all.
This Education Pack
Young people cannot make sense
of their own position and gain knowledge and mastery of
it without an understanding of both the international and
national circumstances that shape their world. Intercultural
education can facilitate this process. We have aimed to
provide practical and theoretical materials which can be
used by educators, trainers, youth workers and teachers
in informal education. We have been able to build on the
experience gained in the production of "ALIEN
93 - Youth Organisations Combating Racism and Xenophobia"
published by the Youth Directorate in 1993. The pack is
not an academic thesis and we have tried to make it readable.
Experienced practitioners will find new ideas here, but'
the main target group are those who are just starting to
work with young people in this area. Although we talk of
young people, this pack and the activities proposed can
be adapted for other age groups in informal education settings.
Part A is a general introduction
to the current situation in Europe and argues for the introduction
of intercultural education. We look at the historical, political
and economic developments which have produced our societies.
After defining some key concepts we go on to examine the
bases of intercultural education. A reference section at
the end suggests avenues for further exploration. Questions
are placed strategically throughout the text to make the
issues come alive and to provide suggestions for discussion
topics with youth groups. Part A provides the context for
the educational approaches outlined in Part B.
Part B provides a toolbox of methods
and activities to use with young people in intercultural
education. Following a description of the overall methodology,
you will find a range of activities which are based firmly
on group work and participation. Working from experience,
exploring new approaches, Part B encourages young people
to take action.
In the production of this pack every effort
has been made to ensure that you can use it in the manner
most suitable for your work in designing educational activities.
You can start reading this pack at any point which is of
interest to you. Please read it critically and adapt what
you find to your own circumstances.
Through using this pack we hope that young
people will understand more about the causes of racism and
intolerance, and be able to recognise their existence in
society. Through a process of intercultural education we
seek to enable young people to value differences between
people, cultures and outlooks on life; this gives us the
tools to live and work together in a spirit of cooperation,
building a new and peaceful society where there is dignity
The Production Unit and its Working Methods
What is the point of publishing such an education pack?
We consulted with partners in
the Campaign and their messages were clear: educational
activities must form the basis of the Campaign if it is
to have a lasting effect; and across Europe there is a need
for accessible educational materials to support this process.
The factor which distinguishes this education
pack from others is that it has been conceived and written
by a multicultural team of experienced youth work trainers,
within the context of the Campaign. We feel it is important
to describe some of the processes involved in developing
this pack, because this may highlight some of the challenges
and problems you may find in attempting to cooperate interculturally.
Co-ordinating such a widespread group is not easy; communication
via phone and fax does not always work, meeting together
is expensive and the obvious time pressure can be counter-productive.
The original composition of the production
unit which met for the first time in the European Youth
Centre Strasbourg in September 1994 was:
Pat Brander, Beccles, UK - trainer
Carmen Cardenas, Madrid, Spain -
Philippe Crosnier de Bellaistre,
Berlin, Germany - trainer
Mohammed Dhalech, Gloucester, UK
- CEMYC, representing the European Steering Group of the
Rui Gomes, Tutor, European Youth
Centre of the Council of Europe
Erzsébet Kovács, Budapest,
Hungary - trainer
Mark Taylor, Strasbourg, France -
trainer and writer
Juan de Vicente Abad, Madrid, Spain
- Colectivo AMANI
All members have contributed to the concept
of this publication. Unfortunately, a combination of personal
and professional reasons prevented a couple of the group
from attending the second meeting held in December 1994
at the Centro Eurolatinamericano de Juventud in Mollina,
Our work has involved a process
of constructive conflict between the members:
• how do we put together our differing
experiences, definitions, ideologies and educational practice?
• how far will this Campaign really
help to combat the causes of discrimination and intolerance?
• how do we reflect the different
realities of all the European countries and cultures?
• how do we combine our differing
analyses of these causes?
• why is there no direct translation
of the word "intercultural" into Hungarian?
• is this British English or international
• why can't you speak Spanish?
• what kind of structure should the
• is it possible to convey concepts
simply without being simplistic?
• and, a very practical question,
how much information is required in the description of a
method or activity?
Arriving at answers to these questions
demanded a high degree of commitment from all members and
the ability to explain in creative ways. Whether or not
a form of intercultural synergy has been achieved, can only
be decided by you, the users of this pack.
We decided to use Equipo Claves' and Cruz
Roja Juventud's publication "En un mundo de differencias
... un mundo diferente" as the basis for Part A.
Much of it has been radically re-shaped and re-written to
take into account the diversity of realities across Europe.
Inventing or adapting methods together
for Part B helped us as a team to understand much better
where we were going and how to get there. Very often we
arrived at completely unexpected destinations - reviewing
these journeys contributed to our conclusion that intercultural
education is an open-ended process.
Exciting debates about the values upon
which the pack should be built led us to the conclusion
that the pack should promote:
• ways to learn about and experience
difference and discrimination
• a new or different understanding
• a search for and commitment to
the equal dignity of all members of society
• clues and paths for action and
We were all most conscious of the fact
that intercultural education has its limits and requires
political and economic support in order to be effective.
Within the Plan of Action decided in Vienna there are proposals
to help this process [see Appendix 1]. Only in the years
following the Campaign will we be able to evaluate the seriousness
of these commitments.
In fact, since then the member States
of the Council of Europe have put commitments into action.
Two important examples are: the coming into force of the
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities;
and the creation of ECRI,
the European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance -
its task is to combat racism, xenophobia, anti-semitism
and intolerance at the level of greater Europe and from
the perspective of the protection of human rights. ECRI's
action covers all necessary measures to combat violence,
discrimination and prejudice faced by persons or groups
of persons, notably on grounds of "race", colour,
language, religion, nationality and national or ethnic origin.
Terminology - a word of warning
Words have power. Words represent
values. Depending on the context, words can change their
meanings even within the same language. We have tried to
explain the contexts and meanings of the words we use. This
whole area of intercultural relations is highly politicised
because words cannot be understood properly outside their
socio- economic context.
Indeed, while preparing for this second
edition, we did consider taking into account the developing
debates on non-formal education in recent years. In the
end we decided not to alter the terminology used here, especially
as the authors do explain their reasons for using them.
Depending on your experience and understandings,
you may find that you would never have used the same words
or expressions in such a publication. We would urge you
to suspend judgement for a little while and question why,
in your opinion, some words or phrases are wrong and to
look for possible replacements. This Education Pack will
also be translated into a number of different languages
and, whilst every care will be taken to ensure accuracy,
this process does change meanings. Exciting, isn't it?